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Maximal Skeletal Loading Resources

The Surgeon General states that increases in bone mineral density, to prevent or reverse the effects of osteoporosis, are stimulated by maximum loading on the musculoskeletal system. Regular, proper use of the BStrong4LifeTM System enables the user to safely achieve such maximum loading, and therefore helps combat the effects of osteoporosis.

Bone Density & Bone Health

Kemmler,W., Lauber, D., Weineck, J., Hensen, J., Kalender, W., Engelke, K.

Benefits of 2 Years of Intense Exercise on Bone Density, Physical Fitness, and Blood Lipids in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women
Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1084-109

This study shows that early postmenopausal women can reduce bone mass loss by maximum strength type exercise.

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Mayoux-Benhamou, M A., Leyge, J., Roux, C., Revel, M

Cross-Sectional Study of Weight-Bearing Activity on Proximal Femur Bone Mineral Density
Calcified Tissue International February, 1999; Volume 64, Number 2

The results of this study demonstrate the maximal loading effects over 5 years showing that those individuals that participated in this kind of activity had signifi- cantly higher BMD.

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Kemmler, W., Engelke, K., von Stengel, S.

Long-Term Four-Year Exercise Has a Positive Effect on Menopausal Risk Factors: The Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2007; p. 232-239

This study demonstrated that exercise stimulus using high loads has positive affect relevant to menopausal risk factors and, therefore, may be individually considered as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy.

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Camacho, P. MD, Reyan, K

Exercise and Osteoporosis

Endocrineweb 2009

This article correlates the adaptive responses of bone and muscular tissues as they respond to loading. Load bearing exercise builds and maintains healthy bones that are less prone to osteoporosis related fracture.

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Kontulainen, S., Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Passanen, M., Sievanen, H., Vuori, I.

Former Exercisers of an 18-month Intervention Display Residual aBMD Benefits Compared with Control Women 3.5 years Post-Intervention: A Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled High-Impact Trial
Osteoporosis International 2004, Mar; p 248-251

The findings of this study suggest that high-impact exercise has a long-term benefits in BMD for premenopausal women.

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Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Sievanen, H., Oja, P., Pasanen, M., Rinne, M.,
Uusi-Rasi, K.
Randomized Controlled Trial of Effect of High-Impact Exercise on Selected Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures

The Lancet 1996, Nov; p 1343-1347

The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate, in premeno- pausal women, the effects of high-impact loading on several determinants of osteoporotic fractures.

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Wang, Q., Alen, M., Nicholson, P., Suominem, H., Koistinen, A., Kroger, H., Cheng, S.
Weight-Bearing, Muscle Loading and Bone Mineral Accrual in Pubertal Girls-A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

Journal of the International Bone and Mineral Society 2007, May; 1196-1202

This study shows BMD gain as a result of impact training (maximal voluntary contraction) in pubertal female subjects.

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Functional Strength & Joint Health

Miyaguchi, M., Kobayashi, A., Kadoya, Y., Ohashi, H., Yamano, Y., Takoaka, K.

Biochemical Change in Joint Fluid After Isometric Quadriceps Exercise for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2003, Apr; p 252-259

This study shows isometric quadriceps exercise resulting in significant changes in joint fluid biochemical parameters, and these changes, at least in part, may explain the positive effect of muscle exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee.

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Topp, R., Wolley, S., Hornyak, J., Khuder, S., Kaheleh, B.

The Effect of Dynamic Versus Isometric Resistance Training on Pain and Func- tioning Among Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2002, Sep; p 1187-1195

This study shows that dynamic or isometric resistance training improve func- tional ability and reduce knee joint pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

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Capodagilo, P., Capodagilo, E., Faciolo, M., and Saibene, F.

Long-term strength training for community-dwelling people over 75: impact on muscle function, functional ability and life style
European Journal of Applied Physiology 2007, Jul; p 535-542

This study shows that the amount of habitual physical activity and live-span of both males and females over the age of 75 can be improved by engaging in high- intensity resistance loading of the body.

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Fisher, W., and White, M.

Training-Induced Adaptations in the Central Command and Peripheral Reflex Components of the Pressor Response to Isometric Exercise of the Human Triceps Surae
Journal of Physiology 1999, Oct; p 621-628

Conclusive evidence is shown in this study for a central nervous response in rela- tion to added function of one limb as a result of training to the other, in this case, non-trained limb.

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Muscle Mass & Muscle Strength

Henwood, TR., Riek, S., and Taaffe DR.

Strength Versus Muscle Power-Specific Resistance Training in Community- Dwelling Older Adults
Journal of Gerontology 2008, Jan; p 83-91

Both strength and power improved in the subjects of this study using both dynamic and isometric modalities. Subjects used were independent adults ages 65 to 84 years old.

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Fiatarone, M., Marks, E., Ryan, N., Meredith, C., Lipsitz., Evans, W.

High-Intensity Strength Training in Nonagenarians Effects on Skeletal Muscle

The Journal of the American Medical Association 1990, Jun; p 3029-3034

This study concludes that maximal loading of the body in exercise leads to significant gains in muscle strength, size, and functional mobility among frail residents of nursing homes up to 96 years of age.