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Eccentric Resources

Below are are variety of resources to help you learn more about Eccentric Training, the benefits of the reACT Training and BStrong4Life®

  • Kent E . Timm, Clinical Applications of Eccentric Exercise Isokinetics and Plyometrics. Hong Kong Physiother. J. 1991/1992; 13: 1 -4
  • Standish WD, Rubinovich RM, Curwin S (1986) : Eccentric exercise in chronic tendinitis. Clin Orthop 208: 65-68
  • Timm KE, Davies GJ (1991) : Eccentric exercise . In : Duncan P (ed), Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Physical Therapy Association, Boston, MA. : American Physical Therapy Association
  • Elftman H (1966) : Biomechanics of muscle. J Bone Jt Surg 48A: 363-370 .
  • Kaneko M, Komi PV, Aura O (1984) : Mechanical efficiency ofconcentric and eccentric exercises performed with medium to fast contraction rates. Scand J Sports Sci 6: 15-20.
  • Friden J, Seger J, Sjostrom M, Eckblom B (1983) : Adaptive response in human skeletal muscle subjected to prolonged eccentric training . Int JSports Med4: 177-183 .
  • Daniel Lorenz; Michael Reiman: the role and Implementation of Eccentric Training in Athletic Rehabilitation: Tendinopathy, Hamstring Strains, and ACL Reconstruction. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy|Volume 6, Number 1| March 2011 | Page 27
  • Nelson RT. (2006). A comparison of the immediate effects of eccentric training vs. static stretch on hamstring flexibility in high school & college athletes. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 1(2):56 – 61.6.
  • Pashalis, Vassilis, Nikolaidis; Michalis G.; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Panayiotou, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios: A Weekly Bout of Eccentric Exercise Is Sufficient to Induce Health-Promoting Effects. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: January 2011 – Volume 43 – Issue 1 – pp 64-73
  • LaStayo PC, Ewy GA, Pierotti DD, Johns RK, Lindstedt; S. The positive effects of negative work: increased muscle strength and decreased fall risk in a frail elderly population. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58:M419-424
  • LaStayo PC, Pierotti DJ, Pifer J, Hoppeler H, Lindstedt; SL. Eccentric ergometry: increases in locomotor muscle size and strength at low training intensities. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;278:R1282-1288.
  • Lastayo PC, Reich TE, Urquhart M, Hoppeler H, Lindstedt SL. Chronic eccentric exercise: improvements in muscle strength can occur with little demand for oxygen. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:R611-615.
  • Lindstedt SL, LaStayo PC, Reich TE. When active muscles lengthen: properties and consequences of eccentric contractions. News Physiol Sci. 2001;16:256-261.
  • J. Parry Gerber, Robin L. Marcus, Leland E. Dibble, Patrick E. Greis, Robert T. Burks and Paul C. LaStayo. Effects of Early Progressive Eccentric Exercise on Muscle Structure After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 89:559-570, 2007. doi:10.2106/JBJS.F.00385
  • J. Parry Gerber, Robin L. Marcus, Leland E. Dibble, and Paul C. LaStayo. The Use of Eccentrically Biased Resistance Exercise to Mitigate Muscle Impairments Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Short Review. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach January 2009 1:31- 38;doi:10.1177/1941738108327531
  • Nosaka K, Clarkson P.M. Muscle damage following repeated bouts of high force eccentric exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exrc., 27(9):1263-1269,1995.
  • Smith LL., Fuylmer MG., Holbert D., McCammon MR., Houmard JA., Frazer DD., Nsien E., Isreal RG. The impact of repeated bout of eccentric exercise on muscular strength, muscle soreness and creatine kinase. Br J Sp Med 28(4):267-271, 1994.
  • T.C. Chen, Taipei Physical Education College, and S.S. Hsieh, FACSM,. The effects of a seven-day repeated eccentric training on recovery from muscle damage. Med. Sci. Sports Exrc. 31(5 Supp) pp. S71, 1999.
  • T.E. Reich, S. L. Lindstedt, P. C. Lastayo, D. J. Pierotti. Is the spring quality of muscle plastic? Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 278: R1661–R1666, 2000
  • Taylor CR. Force development during sustained locomotion: a determinant of gait, speed and metabolic power. J Exp Biol 115:253–262, 1985
  • Johnson, B. L., J. W. Adamaczyk, and K. O. Tennoe. A comparison of concentric and eccentric muscle training. Med. Sci.Sports Exerc. 8: 35–38, 1976. 19.
  • D. A., and O. M. Rutherford. Human muscle strength training: the effects of three different regimes and the nature of the resultant changes. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 391: 1–11, 1987. 20.
  • Komi, P. V., and E. R. Buskirk. Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and electrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics 15: 417–434, 1972.
  • Abbott, B. C., B. Bigland, and J. M. Ritchie. The physiological cost of negative work. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 117: 380–390, 1952.
  • Friden, J. Adaptive response in human skeletal muscle subjected to prolonged eccentric training. Int. J. Sports Med. 4:177–183, 1983.
  • Clarkson, P. M., K. Nosaka, and B. Braun. Muscle function after exercise induced muscle damage and rapid adaptation.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 24: 512–520, 1992.
  • Ebbeling, C. B., and P. M. Clarkson. Muscle adaptation prior to recovery following eccentric exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 60:26–31, 1990
  • Friden, J., M. Sjostrom, and B. Ekblom. Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man. Int. J. Sports Med. 4:170–176, 1983.
  • Golden, C., and G. A. Dudley. Strength after bouts of eccentric or concentric actions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 24: 926–933, 1992.
  • Johnson, B. L., J. W. Adamaczyk, and K. O. Tennoe. A comparison of concentric and eccentric muscle training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 8: 35–38, 1976.
  • Paul C. LaStayo,Gordon A. Ewy,David D. Pierotti,Richard K. Johns,Stan Lindstedt. The Positive Effects of Negative Work: Increased Muscle Strength and Decreased Fall Risk in a Frail Elderly Population. Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES Copyright 2003 by The Gerontological Society of America 2003, Vol. 58A, No. 5, 419–424
  • S. L. Lindstedt, P. C. LaStayo, T. E. Reich. When Active Muscles Lengthen: Properties and Consequences of Eccentric Contractions. News Physiol. Sci. • Volume 16 • December 2001
  • Alfredson, H., Pietilä, T., Jonnson, P., Lorentzon, R. (1998), Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic achilles tendinosis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 26(3):360-366.
  • Brandenburg, J., Docherty, D. (2002), The effects of accentuated eccentric loading on strength, muscle hypertrophy, and neural adaptations in trained individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 16(1):25-32.
  • Doan, B., Newton, R., Marsit, J., Triplett-McBride, T., Koziris, P., Fry, A., Kraemer, W. (2002), Effects of increased eccentric loading on bench press 1RM. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 16(1):9-13.
  • Mroig, K O’Brien, G Kirk, R Murray, P McKinnon, B Shadgan, W D Reid. The effects of eccentric versus concentric resistance training on muscle strength and mass in healthy adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2009;43:556-568 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.051417